Wednesday, April 29, 2015

Best Training Guide -- US Marine Corps Systems Approach to Training (SAT) Manual

We have a winner! This document is perhaps the best guide to training. It has pretty much everything.

Let's go back to some of the wonderful stuff from the US military.

US Marine Corps Systems Approach to Training (SAT) Manual. June 2004.

I really like this thing. It has some great detail. It conforms to an ADDIE model has has details on each section. I particularly like the breakdown of inputs, outputs, etc.


Job task data
Job analysis
Task list

Task analysis
Individual training standards (ITS)

Instructional setting
Define student population
Target Population Description (TDP)

Conduct learning analysis
Learning Objectives

Define evaluation
Test Items

Select media and method
Delivery System

Organize Instruction
Sequenced Terminal Learning Objectives (TLO)
Learning Objectives
Organize course
Course Schedule

Develop Instruction
Master Lesson Files (MLF)

Delivery System
Develop media

Test Items
Validate Instruction
Revised instructional materials

Develop supporting course materials
Course descriptive data

Program of instruction
Instructional materials
Prepare for instruction
Delivery of instruction

Implement instruction
Course data
Course data
Conduct formative evaluation
Revisions to instruction

Conduct summative evaluation
Data on instructional effectiveness

Manage data
Course Content Review Board (CCRB)

  • Analyze
    • Job analysis
    • Task analysis
    • Selection of tasks for instruciton
  • Design
    • Write a Target Population Description (TPD)
    • Conduct Learning Analysis to develop learning objectives
    • Select Delivery System
    • Sequence Learning objectives
  • Develop
    • Develop course schedule
    • Develop instruction
    • Develop media
    • Validate instruction
    • Develop Course Descriptive Data (CDD) and Program of Instruction (POI)
  • Implement
    • Prepare for instruction
    • Implement instruction
  • Evaluate
    • Plan and conduct
    • Analyze and interpret
    • Document and report

A task must be:
  • Logical and necessary unit of work
  • Be observable and measurable or produce an observable and measurable result
  • Have one action verb and one object
  • Be a specific act done for its own sake
  • Be independent of other actions
  • Have a specific beginning and ending
  • Occur over a short period of time

Task lists must be verified and refined. And then you have to identify tasks for instruction based on:

  • Percent of jobholders performing the task
  • Percentage to time spend performing the task
  • Criticality of the task to the job
  • Frequency of task performance
  • Probability of inadequate performance
  • Task learning difficulty
  • Time between job entry and task performance (task delay tolerance)
  • Resource constraints for delivery
There might be particular standards for task delivery.

Target Knowledge Description: who is coming and what knowledge, skills, and attitudes (KSAs) do they need to have?

Learning objectives should:
  1. Tell students what they will be able to perform (behavior)
  2. Describes conditions under which the performance will occur (condition)
  3. Tells how well someone will perform (standard -- completeness, accuracy, time,)
  4. Establishes the basis for measurement of the performance
  5. Provides a focus for the instructor and the student

Tremendous detail on how to actually test these things, particularly multiple choice (pg. 63).

Figure 2-17 is the Methods Selection Matrix that shows the appropriateness for different training methods for different types of learners and environments.

You need a lesson plan. It gives the instructor a script. It establishes continuity and standardization of instruction. Historical document. A lesson plan should include:
  1. Title page
  2. Introduction
  3. Body (transitions, instructor notes, cues)
    1. Establish main ideas
    2. Sequence main ideas
    3. Insert content
    4. Provide examples
    5. Determine placement of methods
      1. Lecture
      2. Demonstration
      3. Practical application
    6. Insert methods
  4. Summary

Videos should be no more than 5-8 minutes.

An instructor preparation guide should include:
  • Lesson title and lesson designator
  • Total lesson time
  • References
  • Location of test
  • Personnel required
  • Facilities
  • Review course materials
  • Materials/equipment
  • Exercise setup and planning

A Master Lesson File (MLF) serves as a repository for all materials. It must include at a minimum:
  1. Learning Analysis Worksheet
  2. Learning Objective Worksheet
  3. Concept Card (snapshot of class -- objectives, method, media, instructor/learner ratios, references)
  4. Risk Assessment Worksheet
  5. Instructor Preparation Guide
  6. Lesson Plan
  7. Student Outline
  8. Supplemental Student Materials
  9. Media

The delivery and evaluation stuff is really good.

Course history folders should include:
  • Enrollment rosters
  • Student data sheet information
  • Test results
  • After Instruction Reports
  • End of Course Critique Summary
  • Graduation Roster

Course content should be reassessed by a review board.

Chapter 6 is all about adult learners.

What is this? Constructivist Learning Environments (CLEs)? They are apparently intended for "ill-structured problems". It is best accomplished with "situated learning" to promote "authentic learning." Problem-based learning is also an effective approach. There's also "Cognitive apprenticeship" (i.e., apprentice, intern, etc.). Best practices for cognitive apprenticeships include:
  • Mentoring/coaching relationship
  • Modeling and explaining of expert knowledge via think aloud procedures and worked examples
  • Encourage collaboration
  • Social interaction to enculture students into authentic practices

Chapter 7 is about developing trainers and then we get a whole lot of worksheets. Awesome. Included sheets include:
  • Learning analysis worksheet
  • Learning objective worksheet
  • Concept card
  • Lesson plan
  • Master Lesson File checklists

Great references. In short, it's the best.


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