Tuesday, February 08, 2005

Big timeline of drawing, publishing, etc.

NOTE: most of the publishing info drawn from http://www.xs4all.nl/~knops/timetab.html


YEAR

History of writing/books

History of tech drawings

-3500

Sumerians use cuneiform alphabet, pressed in clay with a triangular stylus. Clay tablets were dried and/or fired for longevity. Some even had clay envelopes,' which were also inscribed. Some people consider them to be the earliest form of the book.

-2500

Animal skins are used for scrolls in Western Asia.

-2400

Date of the earliest surviving papyrus scroll with writing.

-1900

Hittites, from between 1900 and 1200 BC, left appr. 15,000 clay tablets

-1800

Book of the Dead, Egypt

-1500

The 'Phaistos disc', found on the island of Crete in 1908, was produced by pressing relief-carved symbols into the soft clay, then baking it. Although it contains the germ of the idea of printing, it appears to be unique.

-950

Leather is made and used for scrolls and writing.

-800

Moabite stone is created with one of the finest specimens of Phoenician writing. The letters resemble Greek.

-650

Papyrus. First rolls arrive in Greece from Egypt

-600

6th C. BC General agreement among Mediterranean cultures on left-to-right writing and reading. Before that, there was L-R, R-L, top-to-bottom, and boustroph
edonic (back-and-forth). The Hebrews kept R-L.

-500

Lao-Tze's lifetime, was said to have been archivist of the imperial archives

-431

(431-352 BC) author of Anabasis and Memorabilia.

-295

King Ptolemy I Soter enlisted the services of the orator Demetrios Phalereus, a former governor of Athens, and empowered him to collect, if he could, all the books in the inhabited world. To support his efforts, the king sent letters to all sovereigns and governors on earth requesting that the furnish workd by poets and prose-writers, rhetoricians and sophists, doctors and soothsayers, historians, and all others too (Flavius Josephus). Agents were sent out to scout the cities of Asia, North Africa, and Europe. Foreign vessels calling in at Alexandria were searched routinely for scrolls and manuscripts. Transcripts were returned in due course, but the originals remained confiscated in the library. The story of the 47 AD destruction of the library is only partly true. Some 40,000 of the 700,000 volumes did go up in flames.

-213

Chin Tain Shihuangti, emporer of China, issued an edict that all books should be destroyed (manuscripts on bamboo)

-200

Before 1st C. BC Both Greeks and Romans used wax tablets, framed and backed with wood, for note taking, orders, correspondence, and other temporary information. At times, two or more tablets were joined with thongs or cords, similar to a 3-ringed binder. The Latin name for this was _codex_, from the word for wood. Single wax tablets had been used earlier than this in Mesopotamia, Greece, and Etruria.

-197

197-159 BC In the Middle East, near Pergamum, large herds of cattle are raised for skins to be made into what we now call 'parchment.'

-196

The'Rosetta' stone is cut. It contains the same text in Egyptian hieroglyphic, Egyptian demotic, and Greek writing. It was discovered in 1799 near the mouth of the Nile and served to break the code for deciphering ancient Egyptian works.

-150

The first paper is made in China from macerated hemp fibers in water suspension.

-150

150 BC - 40 AD Approximate dates of the Hebrew and Aramaic documents, Biblical and nonbiblical, found as scrolls sealed in ceramic pots in caves near the Dead Sea in 1957. Some are written on thin, whitish leather similar but not identical to parchment

-100

1st C. BC - 1st C. AD The Romans substituted skin, or membranae, for the wood panels in codices. It is unclear just when this was done and whether membranae was similar to Medieval parchment or to the thin leather of the Dead Sea Scrolls, but it is known that there are no examples or records of this substitution prior to the Romans. Later, Romans used codices to record laws and rules of
order, lending the name codes or codicils to such documents.

-100

1st C. AD By the end of this century, the form of the book had largely changed from the scroll to the codex.

-100

Nash Papyrus, oldest known biblical fragment, containing the Hebrew text of the ten commandments. Acquired in Egypt 1902 by W.L.Nash and now in Cambridge University Library.

-39

Libertas. Asinius Pollio establishes first public library in Rome at the Libertas Temple

-28

Augustus. Under the reign of emporer Augustus two large libraries were founded, the Palatine and the Octavian library

47

The great Library of Alexandria was damaged by fire when Julius Caeser besieged the city. It was said at one time to contain copies and translations of all known books (scrolls), between 400,000 and 500,000. It was later ravaged by civil war in the late 200s AD and by 400, nothing was left.

100

Ulpia. Bibliotheca Ulpia founded by Trajan, also serving as emperial archive

105

Chinese history records that papermaking was invented by Ts'ai Lun in the court of Ho'ti in Lei-yang, China. Paper had, in fact, been made in China for at least two hundred years before this date. The first papers were made from hemp, bark, and used fish nets.

191

Palatine library destoyed by fire

370

Public libraries, in these days there were said to be 28 public libaries in Rome

391

Alexandrian Library destroyed under the direction of Archbishop Theophilus of Antioch (destruction of temple of Serapis)

480

(480-524), the last learned Roman to study the language and literature of Greece. He wrote his DE CONSOLATIONE PHILOSOPHIAE while awaiting his execution. The Consolation of Philosophy is a dialogue of 39 short poems in 13 different meters that paid tribute to the ancient authors and philosophers.

590

Luxeuil. Monastery founded by Columban, first monastery in Gaul. Irish Monks brought along numerous manuscripts

637

Caesarea Library destroyed by Arabs conquering Palestine (library was originally founded by church father Origen who died 309 AD)

687

Undoubtedly one of history's most dramatic book exhumations involves a manuscript copy of the Gospel of St.John that was buried in the year 687 with the body of St. Cuthbert, bishop near Lindesfarne. Two hundred years later Danish invaders sacked the holy compund, carrying with them the remains of Cuthbert. In 1104 the carved wooden casket was opened and the Gospel, a manuscript written in uncial, was found perfectly preserved.

700

Lindisfarne Gospels written on 258 leaves (link to on-line reproductions: http://www.xs4all.nl/~knops/manuscri.html )

715

Codex Amitinus, manuscript of the Vulgate written in Northumbrian uncial.

716

Amiatinus. Codex Amiatinus, made at the scriptorium of the twin monasteries Wearmouth and Jarrow near Newcastle, Northumbria. This codex brings together the entire old and new testament in 1,030 folios in a single binding..

750

Aureus. Codex Aureaus written, probably at Canterbury

750

Canterbury School of manuscript illumination, active until 13th century.

750

Paper making reached Samarkand before 750, Baghdad in 793, Damascus and Cairo in approximately 950. Through the Arab conquest of North Africa and Southern Spain, the invention first reached the Moorish parts of Spain in the 11th century. A mill was recorded at Fez in Morocco in 1100, and the first on the Spanish mainland at Xativa in 1151. It reached Southern Italy in the 13th century, where, untill quite recently, some of the oldest handmade paper mills in Italy were operating near Amalfi, in the Naples area.

750

Willibrord Gospels made appr. 750, probably made by the artists of the Book of Durrow

751

Papermaking introduced in the Islamic world

800

Marbling in Japan, first Turkish marbled paper 1586, first Dutch 1598

800

Kells, Book of. Written and painted at the Columbian monastery of Iona or at the Abbey of Kells in Ireland. 340 folia survived. Since 1661 in Trinity College, Dublin

868

China, oldest known woodblock printing (method was in use much earlier)

868

The first book printed on paper in China, in block printed Buddhist scripts.

896

Colophon, oldest known manuscript colophon, in Books of the Prophets written by Moses ben Asher in Tiberias.

950

Winchester School, 950-1100, characteristic style of manuscript illumination

954

Abingdon Monastery founded by Aethelwold, monks famous for manuscript illumination, Winchester School

1041

In 1403 the earliest known book was printed from movable type in Korea, a process that had been used by the Chinese as early as 1041. In 1450 Gutenberg printed his 42-line Bible in Mainz on a quality of handmade paper that remains unsurpassed to this day. 26 Years later William Caxton brought the art of printing to England, and in 1486 the first English coloured illustrated book was printed in St. Albans.

1068

Fatimite. Library of the Fatimite family (Cairo) destroyed by the Turks

1085

Papermaking in Jativa Spain

1140

Winchester Bible, 1140-1190, English late Romanesque illumination

1147

Utrecht Psalter, Eadwine Psalter, copy of the Utrecht Psalter, example of Canterbury Romanesque written at Christchurch by Eadwine

1238

Papermaking mill established in Capellades, Catalonia

1250

Fore Edge Painting, first on French psalter manuscript

Villard de Honnecourt’s sketchbook (Design and construction drawing; sketch book/ notebook)

1250

The first record of block printing (on paper?) in Egypt.

1276

The important invention of watermarking was made at one of the Fabriano Mills in Tuscany during the second half of the 13th century. One can assume that the reason for the watermark was to give the product a branded trademark of superior quality. There exists a remarkable archive of Fabriano watermarks going back to the first one in 1276, showing a mark for each year until modern times.

1276

Paper. First papermill established in Italy

1283

Fabriano, first Italian papermill was established. Still name of an Italian handmade paper

1290

Edda, Elder Edda (Saemundar Edda) written, presented to King Frederik III by the Icelandic bishop Brynjolfur Sveinsson, now in the Copenhagen Royal Library

1300

Vigevano, Le machine del re (Representational manuscript)

1313

Giovanni Boccacio (1313-1375), author of the DECAMERON.

1325

Biblia Pauperum made in Klosterneuburg near Vienna

1325

Belleville Breviary by Jean Pucelle (Parisian manuscript painter)

1338

Paper, oldest known papermill in France

1340

Berry, Jean duc de (d.1416). Les Tres Riches Heures.

1350

Kyeser, Bellifortis (Representational manuscript)

1373

Bibliotheque Nationale. Charles V is said to be the founder of this library. The 1373 catalogue of his library lists about 1000 volumes, housed in the Louvre

1389

Bedford, John of Lancaster, Duke. The Bedford Missal, 1423

1396

Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy.

1399

Gutenberg, Johann, d.1468, born in Mainz as Johann Gensfleisch zum Gutenberg

1400

Chaucer died

Master Gun-maker’s Booklets (Practitioner booklets)

1410

Ellesmere Chaucer, illustrated manuscript of the Canterbury Tales

1418

Woodcut, oldest known specimen

1418

Rohan Book of Hours, made for Yolande of Aragon.

1420

Fouquet, Jean, d.1480, leading 15th century manuscript painter (Hours of Etienne de Chavalier)

1420

Jenson, Nocolaus, d. 1480, punchcutter and printer of Venice

1420

Caxton, William, born.

1421

Bisticci, Vespasiano da, d.1498, Florentine bookseller, had people like Cosimo de Medici as customer.

1423

Buxheim Saint Christopher, early dated European woodcut illustrations

1425

Mansion, Colard, d.1484, one of the leading calligraphers in Bruges, Belgium

1425

Marmion, Simon, d.1489. Flemish miniature painter, amongst others Grandes Chroniques de France for Philip the Good

1430

Weyden, Rogier van der, d.1464, illustration in Chronique du Haunaut.

1430

Xylographic. First xylographic books, or block books produced in Germany and Holland

1434

Wolgemut, Michael, d.1519, Nuremberg painter famous for his designs for woodcuts.

1435

Hours of Catherine of Cleves made in Utrecht, Holland

1436

Regiomontanus, Johanes, d. 1476, printer at Königsberg, Germany, publisher of astronomical works

1440

Koberger, Anton, d.1513. Printer in Neuremberg since 1470. First dated book Disciplinarum Platonis Epitome, 1472

1441

Marciana. Bibliotheca Marciana founded by Cosimo de Medici

1448

Chronique du Hainaut, illustration by Rogier van der Weyden (manuscript is in Royal Library of Brussels)

1450

Manutius. year of birth Aldus Manutius (Teobaldo Manucci), d.1515

Taccola’s notebooks and de ingeneis (Sketch-books and notebooks, Representational manuscript)

1453

Constantine library. Many books were burnt in this year (Constantinople captured by the Turks) or carried away and sold

1454

Gutenberg. publication of Turkenkalender (Fust, Schöffer, Gutenberg (??)

1455

Block Books in Europe, between 1455 and 1510.

1455

Biblia Pauperum, first xylographic version made in Germany

1456

Gutenberg. 42-line bible by Gutenberg

1457

Colour printing, earliest example in Mainz Psalter

1457

Mainz Psalter by Fust and Schoffer

1458

Corvinus, Matthias, d.1490, King of Hungary, famous bookcollector

1460

Froben, Johann, d.1527, started printing in Basle 1491. Printer of Erasmus publications

1460

Catholicon of Johannes Baldus printed by Schöffer

1461

Edelstein, der, by Ulrich Boner, printed by Albrecht Pfister of Bamberg, first printed book with woodcut illustrations

1461

Biblia Pauperum issued in Bamberg with handcolored illustrations

1462

Badius Ascensius, Jodocus (1535). Parisian printer

1464

Weijden, Rogier van der, death of.

1465

Biblia Pauperum, first typeset edition made near Brussels, illustrations based on drawings by Rogier van der Weijden.

1465

The first drypoint engravings known in the history of prints are those of the MASTER OF THE HOUSEBOOK, active in Germany between 1465 and 1500. The technique was also used, though rarely, by Dürer, for example in his St. Jerome by a Pollard Willow (1512). The unsurpassed master was to be Rembrandt, who used drypoint on its own, or with etching.

1465

Canticum Canticorum, illustrated by Memling(?) or Van der Weijden(?)

1465

Biblia Pauperum, first typeset edition made near Brussels, illustrations based on drawings by Rogier van der Weijden.

1466

Petrucci, Ottaviano, d.1539. Printer in Venice who established a papermill that remained active until the 19th century

1466

Ars Moriendi published first time

1466

Erasmus, Desiderius, d.1536

1467

Italy. First book printed in Rome by Ulrich Han

1467

Hypnerotomachia Poliphili written by Francesco Colonna

1468

Gutenberg dies February 3rd

1469

Arches Papermill in Vosges, France

1469

Bookbinding, the first time the roller or roulette appeared in German binderies

1471

Malermi Bible (Italian translation of the Vulgate) first printed in Venice by Wendelin da Spira

1471

Durer, Albrecht, d.1528

1472

Cranach, Lucas, d.1553. German painter and woodcutter.

Valturio’s de re militari (Drawings in technological treatises)

1472

DIVINE COMEDY, first printed edition of Dante's epic poem

Anonymous of the Hussite Wars (Practitioner booklet)

1472

Speculum Humanae Salvationes printed by Gunther Zainer

1473

Burckmaier, Hans, d.1531. After Durer leading (book)illustrator.

1473

Ducali bindings, from 1473-1600, bindings made for the edicts, decrees and governor's commisions issued by the Doges of Venice

1473

Philobiblon. Richard de Bury's treatise written in praise of books

1475

Belgium, First books printed by Colard Mansion of Bruges

1477

Intaglio. First book with intaglio illustrations 'Il Monte Sancto di Dio' published in Florence

1479

Grolier, Jean, d.1565. Famous French bibliophile, famous for the bindings of his books

1479

Carpi, Ugo da, d.1533, leading engraver of Venice and Rome, likely one of the developers, inventors of chiarusco printing

1482

Poeticon Astronomicon by Erhard Ratdolt, illustrated with allegorical woodcuts

1483

Cologne Bible by Anton Koberger of Nuremberg

1486

Chevalier Libere, printed 1486 by Gotfred van Os at Gouda (book deals with Charles the Bold)

1486

Caxton, William prints his first books in England, in Westminster

1489

Denmark. Bookprinting came to Copenhagen with the arrival of the Dutch printer Gotfried van Os, who called himself Gotfred of Ghemen

1490

Blado, Antonio, d.1567. Printer in Rome, had cursive type face designed by Arrighi.

Leonardo da Vinci begins work on his Codex Madrid (Sketchbooks and notebooks)

1493

The earliest known etchings are by Daniel Hopfer, active at Augsburg between 1493 and 1536, the Swiss Urs Graf, and Dürer, who did five etchings on iron, among them The Agony in the Garden, and The Cannon. Lucas van Leyden (1489-1533) also used this technique on a few rare occasions. The earliest Italian etching is by Parmigianino (1503-1540), whose prints are more sketchy and spontaneous than those of the Northern artists. Etching is above all the medium of Rembrandt: with it he reached a depth and universality of expression never equalled in the history of prints.

1493

Hartmann Schedel's Weltchronik published with illustrations by Wolgemut

1493

Leeu, Gerard, d.1493, printer at Gouda, Holland

1494

Brant. Sebastian Brant's Narrenschiff published, illustrated with woodcuts, among them the famous Bookfool woodcut by Durer (?)

1494

DAS NARRENSCHIFF by Sebastian Brant, first publication. Within fifteen years the work appeared in one Latin, three French, one Dutch, one Low German and an English version. One reason often cited to explain Brant's far-reaching appeal was that he wrote in short chapters, mixed his *fools* skillfully, and maintained a fluid style that engaged his readers.

1494

Narrenschiff, Ship of Fools, by Sebastian Brant, published by Bergmann von Olpe, Basle, illustrated with 114 woodcuts.

1494

Brant. Sebastian Brant's Narrenschiff published, illustrated with woodcuts, among them the famous Bookfool woodcut by Durer (?)

1494

Narrenschiff, Ship of Fools, by Sebastian Brant, published by Bergmann von Olpe, Basle, illustrated with 114 woodcuts.

1495

Bembo. First Latin book from the Aldus' press was Pietro Bembo's dialog about Aetna (printed in a roman type that became the model for later French types, including Garamond's

1495

Griffo, Francesco, cut 'old face' roman type for Aldus Manutius

1495

Bale, John (1563). Compiler of first bibliography in England

1495

Manutius, Greek Grammar, first book published by Manutius

1495

Lufft, Hans, d.1584, printer-publisher of Wittenberg

1495

Manutius, Edition of Aristotle in five volumes, first complete edition in Greek, printed/published between 1495-1498

1497

Holbein, Hans, d.1543.

1497

Neudörfer, Johann, d. 1563, writing master of Nuremberg, his 'Fundament' was the first writing book to be published (collection of Fraktur scripts).

1498

Durer's Apocalypse series woodcuts

1498

Music Printing using movable type invented by Ottaviano Petrucci of Venice

1499

Printing Press, oldest known reproduction of, in Dance of Death printed in Lyon by M.Huss

1499

Hypnerotomachia Poliphili printed by Manutius

1500

Garamont, Claude, d.1561. Parisian type designer and punchcutter

1501

Manutius. Virgil edition; first book by Aldus Manutius in octavo format

1501

Manutius. First time use of Francescop Griffo's *Italic* type by Manutius

1502

Egenolff, Christian, d.1555, established press and foundry in Frankfurt 1530

1507

Chiaroscuro, first by Georg Lucas Cranach.

1507

Oporinus, Johannes, d.1568, scholar-printer of Basle, issued more than 800 publications, including Koran and writings by Luther. Most important: Andreas Vesalius 'De Humani Corporis Fabrica' (anatomical study)

1508

Earliest dated German colour woodcut: The Emperor Maximilian on Horseback by Hans Burgkmair (1473-1531)

1508

The Emperor Maximilian on Horseback by Hans Burgkmair (1473-1531)

1508

Jost de Negker, active in Antwerp 1508-1544, master of Burgkmair, Cranach and Hans Baldung Grien. Believed to be the inventor of the colored woodcut.

1508

Active in Antwerp 1508-1544, master of Burgkmair, Cranach and Hans Baldung Grien. Believed to be the inventor of the colored woodcut.

1509

Narrenschiff, English adaptation Ship of Fools by Alexander Barclay, based on the latin translation by Jacob Locher.

Drawings of Antonio da Sangallo (Sketch-books and notebooks)

1510

Grolier was in Italy as a French legate from 1510-1537

1512

Mercator, Gerard, d.1592 (Gerhard Kremer) Cartographer, mathematician. 1537 established a business as globe and map maker.

1513

Fraktur, first book printed in this type, Prayer book of Maximilian teh First

1514

Denmark Chronicle printed by Ascenius in Paris

1515

Be, Guillaume le, d.1598, punchmaker, matrix maker and typefounder of troyes

1515

Manutius, year in which Manutius died

1516

Bible. Johan Froben of Basle published New Testament in Greek

1516

Ugo da Carpi (1480-1532), obtained from the Signoria of Venice the privilege for the chiaroscuro woodcut, which he claimed to have invented, even though none of his woodcuts is dated earlier than 1518.

1516

(1480-1532), obtained from the Signoria of Venice the privilege for the chiaroscuro woodcut, which he claimed to have invented, even though none of his woodcuts is dated earlier than 1518.

1517

Teuerdank for emperor Maximilian published in a type that is considered to be a forerunner of the fraktur type. Book was printed by Hans Schönsperger.

1517

Luthers fight against the Roman Catholic church starts. Considered to be the first revolution of ideas supported by the fast and wide spread of written information thanks to the invention of printing

1520

Plantin, Christopher, d.1589

1521

Cambridge University Press founded.

Vitruvius republished, De architectura libri dece (Drawings in editions of classical sources)

1522

Luther, Melchior Lotter printed the first edition of Luthers' translation of the New Testament

1523

Holbein's Dance of Death drawn.

1525

Laurenziana. Michelangelo erects building for the Bibliotheca Laurenziana (De Medici collection)

1527

Ortelius, Abraham, d. 1598, published of Antwerp (original name: Abraham Wortels), cartographer and publisher of maps. Theatrum Orbis Terrarum 1570

1528

Feierabend, Sigmund, d.1590, woodcutter and typecutter, Heidelberg, Germany

1529

Enchiridion der kleine Catechismus fur die gemeine Pfarher und Prediger, Gemehrt und gebessert durch Mart.Luther, Wittenberg

1529

Tory, Geoffroy Tory's Champleury published in Paris

1530

Tory, Geoffroy, becomes the first royal printer in Paris

1530

Miguel de Cervantes (1513-1616), author of DON QUIXOTE

1531

Krause, Jakob, d.1586. German bookbinder, active in Paris , Augsburg and Dresden

1531

Emblem Books, the first anthology of emblems was printed in Augsburg by Heinrich Steiner: Emblematum Liber

1534

Frankfurt Bookfair

1534

Luther. First complete Luther bible translation, illustrated, was printed by Hans Lufft at Wittenberg

1536

Lotter, Melchior, d.1536, printer of Leipzig, friend of Luther

1537

France I ordered that all French presses should deliver a copy of every book they printed to the royal library

Tartaglia, Nova scientia (Drawings in treatises on mechanics)

1538

Dance of Death with Holbein's illustrations printed in Lyon by Gaspar and Melchior Treschel

1538

Holbein's Dance of Death published in Lyons

1539

Amman. birth Jost Amman

1540

Keere, Hendrik van den, d.1580. Punchcutter, binder and printer in Ghent, Belgium

1540

Paper, first papermill in Stockholm

1540

Egerton, Sir Thomas, d.1617, founder of one of the oldest private libraries in Britain; in 1917 a large portion of the archives was bought by Henry E. Huntington

1543

Vesalius, Andreas, 'De Humani Corporis Fabrica', anatomical study, published by Johannes Oporinus

1543

Moretus, Joannes (Jan Moerentorf), d.1610. Plantin's son in law and successor.

1545

Bodley, Sir Thomas, d.1613. Rebuilder of Oxford University Library bearing his name.

1545

Granjon, Robert, d.1589, Paris/Lyon, punchcutter and typedesigner

1545

Bodley, Sir Thomas, d.1613. Rebuilder of Oxford University Library bearing his name.

1546

Farnese. The Farnese Hours manuscript produced in Rome for Alessandro Cardinal Farnese. Presently in the Pierpont Morgan Library, New York

1546

Elzevier, Louis, d.1617, founder of Elzevier Press and publishing office (originally from Louvain, worked with Plantin in Antwerp and later settled in Leyden)

1549

Book of Common Prayer, first complete edition in England.

1550

Oxford library plundered by soldiers of Edward VI

1553

Marguerite de France, d.1615. Wife of Henry IV of France, important book collector amongst others items from library of Duke de Berry

1553

Ferrara Bible printed by Abraham ibn Usque

1553

Ferrara Bible printed by Abraham ibn Usque

1553

Queen Mary acquired the 14th century psalter (English psalter with 223 tinted drawings). Now in the British Library

1556

Civilite, designed by Robert Granjon.

Agricola, De re metallica (Drawings in technological treatises)

1558

Mistress of Henry II, lobbied succesfully for a passage of an ordinance that required French publishers to present copies of every book they issued to the libraries of Blois and Fontainebleau.

1563

Hondius, Jodocus, d.1612, Dutch map engraver

1567

Ceredi, Tre discorsi sopra il modo d’alzar acque da’ luoghi bassi (Drawings in technological treatises)

1569

Polyglot Bible, printed by Plantin between 1569 and 1572 for Philip II of Spain

Besson, Theatrum instrumentorum et machinarum (Theatres of machines)

1570

Ortelius. Theatrum Orbis Terrarum, famous atlas by Abraham Ortelius

1570

Fanfare, until 1640, book cover decoration developed in France (interlacing ribbons)

1571

Blaeu, Willem Janszoon, d.1638. Map engraver, bookseller, printer of Amsterdam

1571

Cotton, Sir Robert, d.1631. famous London manuscript collector, one of the early owners of the Utrecht Psalter

1577

Monte, (Drawings in treatises on mechanics)

1580

Jannon, Jean, d.1658, Geneva, punchcutter, typefounder and printer, worked in Sedan, France.

Will plans of Berthold Holzschuber, perhaps first set of modern construction plans combining both isometric and orthographic views (Design and construction drawings; Sketch-books and notebooks)

1584

Wagoner. Publication of 'Spegel der Zeevaerdt' printed in Leyden by Plantin, seecharts by Waghenaer. From his name was the term Wagoner for seecharts derived

Errard, Le premier livre des instrumens mathematiques mechaniques (Drawings in Theatres of Machines)

1584

Ruette, Mace, d.1644, Parisian master binder and court binder

1584

Wagoner. Publication of 'Spegel der Zeevaerdt' printed in Leyden by Plantin, seecharts by Waghenaer. From his name was the term Wagoner for seecharts derived

1588

Ramelli, Le diverse et artificiose machine (Drawings in Theaters of Machines)

1588

Pappus, Mathematicae collections (Drawings in editions of classical sources)

1589

Plantin's death

Heron, De gli automati (Drawings in editions of classical sources)

1590

Cathach Psalter, attributed to St.Columba, Irish manuscript.

1593

Philippines, The first book printed in Manilla: Doctrina Christiana (Unique copy in Lessing J.Rosenwald collection)

1594

Leipzig bookfair

1596

Jansson, Joannes, d. 1664, Dutch printer and publisher, famous for his atlases

Lorini, Delle forificationi libri cinque (Drawings in technological treatises)

1600

Naude, Gabriel, d.1653, librarian to Cardinal Mazarin.

1601

Dijck, Christoffel van, d.1669, Amsterdam punchcutter, in 1673 his foundry was acquired by Daniel Elzevier

1602

Oxford library reestablished by Queen Elizabeth's statesman Thomas Bodley

Drawings by Heinrich Schickhardt (Design and construction drawings; Sketch-books and notebooks)

1603

Digby, Sir Kenelm, d.1665, donor of the Bodleian Library

1607

Zonca, Novo teatri di machine et edificii (Drawings in Theatres of Machines)

1607

Zeising, Theatri machinarum (Drawings in Theatres of Machines)

1615

Caus, Les raisons des forces mouuantes, auec diuerses machines tant vtilles que plaisantes (Drawings in Theatres of Machines)

1617

Strada, Kuntsliche abrith allerhand wasser- wind- ross- und handt muehlen (Drawings in Theatres of Machines)

1618

Blaeu firm, renown for their atlases, active from 1618 to 1672

1620

Uppsala University founded and books were presented to the university library by Gustavus Adolphus (many of the collections he took from Riga and Prussia and South Germany)

1620

Janson, Anton, d.1687. Dutch typefounder, trained in Amsterdam by Christophel Plantin

1623

Vaillant, Wallerant, d.1677, Dutch artist active in mezzotint technique

1626

Facsimile. first facsimile edition by Plantin, 16th century Martyrologium Hieronymianum (engraved on copper plates)

1627

Naude, Gabriel. In building their libraries Richelieu and Mazarin received considerable assistance from theisr librarian Naude, who published 1627 the book 'Advis pour dresser une bibliotheque'

1629

Blaeu Atlasses made between 1629 and 1662.

Branca, Le machine (Drawings in Theatres of Machines)

1634

Bodleian library, see: Digby, Sir Kenelm

1640

Blooteling, Abraham, d.1690. Developed mezzotint (invented in 1642 by Ludwig von Siegen)

1640

Bay Psalm Book published

1640

Imprimerie Royale du Louvre established at the instigation of Richelieu, first book published 'De Imitatione Christi'

1642

Mezzotint invented by Ludwig von Siegen.

1643

Mazarin, First Mazarin bibliotheque opened for scientists and literary scholars

1648

Devil's Bible. When the Swedes stormed Prague in 1648 they took (stole) many books including the rich collection of the Bohemian kings at Hradschin, many vellum manuscripts, including the Devil's Bible

1650

Atlas Magnus Blaeu made between 1650-1662.

1660

The technique of the mezzotint seems to have been invented by a German soldier, Ludwig von Siegen (1609-c.1680); the earliest known mezzotint is The Grand Executioner done in about 1660 by Prince Rupert, the Palatine Prince Ruprecht von der Pflatz (1619-1682). The Colossus by Francisco Goya (1746-1828), engraved in about 1815, was produced entirely by this technique, which was later taken up by others, notably by Edvard Munch (1863-1944).

1661

Bible. first bible published in America by Samuel Green (John Eliot's Algonquin Indian version)

Bockler, Theatrum machinarum novum (Drawings in Theatres of Machines)

1662

Faithorne,William: 'The Art of Graveing and Etching' published

1662

Blaeu, publication of Atlas Major in 11 volumes

1666

Grandjean de Fouchy, Philippe, d.1714, Parisian punchcutter, a.o. 'Romain du Roi'

1667

Jakob Christof Le Blon (1667-1741) was the first to produce an engraving in several colours. He took as his starting point Newston's theory, published in 1702, which stated that all colours in the spectrum are composed of the three primary colours -blue, yellow and red. In practice, however, in order to obtain a satisfactory impression, a fourth plate had to be added, bearing black lines.

1673

Hollander, paperpulp beating machine, probably by Jacob Honingh in Zaandijk, Holland

1686

Magnus, Albertus (d.) important 17th century Amsterdam bookbinder, amongst others Elzevier Bibles

1689

At her death in 1689, Christina of Sweden's library, known as the Bibliotheca Alessandrina (she considered herself a female Alexander the Great), was transferred to the Vatican Library.

1690

Paper, first papermaking in America

1691

Mazarin. Second Mazarin bibliotheque opened

1693

Caslon, William, d.1766. English typefounder.

1695

Luce, Louis-Rene, d.1774, punchcutter working for the Imprimerie Royal

1701

Fleischman, Johann Michael, d.1768, Nuremberg punchcutter

1702

Jakob Christof Le Blon (1667-1741) was the first to produce an engraving in several colours. He took as his starting point Newston's theory, published in 1702, which stated that all colours in the spectrum are composed of the three primary colours -blue, yellow and red. In practice, however, in order to obtain a satisfactory impression, a fourth plate had to be added, bearing black lines.

1703

Enschede Printing office founded in Haarlem by Izaac Enschede

1706

Baskerville, John (1775), Typefounder and printer in Birmingham.

1706

Franklin, Benjamin, d.1790, printer, publisher, statesman

1709

Copyright Act in England

1713

Baine, John (1790). Edinburgh typefounder

1716

Utrecht Psalter donated to the Utrecht University Library by Willem de Ridder, an official of the States of Utrecht.

1717

Horace Walpole (1717-1797), author of thousands of diverting letters.

1725

Ibarra, Joaquim, d.1785, printer in Madrid, court printer to Carlos III

1726

Austria. Imperial Library (now National Library) building built by J.B.Fischer

1726

Chodowiecki, Daniel Nikolaus, d.1801. German artis-engraver.

1730

Didot, Francois-Ambroise, d.1804, oldest of Didot family, famous French printing family

1733

Jackson, Joseph, d.1792, London typecutter and founder

1734

Aquatint invented by Jean-Baptiste Le Prince (1734-1784). François Janinet (1752-1813) was the first to employ it for colour prints, by using several plates. Francisco Goya made great use of it, often combining it with line engraving, etching and also drypoint. In more recent times it has been one of the favourite techniques of Georges Rouault (1871-1958) and Pablo Picasso.

1738

Walter, John, d.1812, founder of newspaper The Times, 1785/1788

1738

Engelmann, Gottfried, d.1839, lithograph printer, inventor of chromolythography in 1836

1738

Walter, John, d.1812, founder of newspaper The Times, 1785/1788

1740

Bodoni, Giambatista,d.1813. Italian printer and punchcutter.

1746

Johnson's Dictionary, made in England, between 1746 and 1773

1753

British Library. The national library of Britain came into being in 1753 when parliament decided to purchase the collection of books and manuscripts that had been left by Hans Sloane. A few years later George II presented the Royal library

1753

Bewick, Thomas (d. 1828)

1755

Edwards of Halifax binding firm founded by William Edwards of Yorkshire

1756

Egerton, Francis Henry, d. 1829, bibliophile who donated a collection of 67 manuscripts to the British Museum

1757

Bohn, Johann,d.1843. German binder, noted for his gilded doublures, and paper marbling

1757

Blake, William, d.1827. English artist-illustrator, illustrated Milton and Dante editions.

1757

Bohn, Johann,d.1843. German binder, noted for his gilded doublures, and paper marbling

1758

Silvestre de Sacy (1758-1838), sensible and analytical scholar, a brilliant man who served from 1833 to his death as keeper of Oriental manuscripts at the Bibliothèque Nationale in Paris.

1759

Balston, William (1849). English papermaker

1765

Pop-up. Robert Sayer of London produces childrens' metamorphosis, the Harliquinades.

1765

Niepce, Joseph Nicephore, d. 1833, inventor of photography (1822)

1766

Traite de la Gravure en Bois by Jean Michel Papillon

1768

Darlington Press, private press, established at The Grange by George Allen

1770

Chatterton, Thomas. (1752-1770). English poet, known for his literary frauds distinguished by poetic genius. He wrote a number of poems that he pretended were the work of one Thomas Rowley, a non-existent monk of the 15th century.

1770

Whatman paper, English hand-made wove paper first made by James Whatman at Maidstone

1772

Ballantyne, James (d.1833). Publisher of Sir Walter Scott

1774

König, Friedrich, d.1833. Inventor of the cylinder press

1782

Dickinson, John, d.1869, inventor of the cylinder printing machine

1785

Oldest German used book business founded by Joseph Baer of Frankfurt

1785

Times. Foundation of Daily Universal Register, from 1788 to be called The Times.

1787

Daguerre, Louis Jacq. Mande, d.1851, worked together with the inventor of photography, Niepce (d.1833) and developed daguerreotype process

1790

Bewick: A General history of Quadrupeds

1790

Bewick's History of Quadrupeds

1793

Annales Typographici ab artis inventae origine ad annum MD by Georg Panzer

1794

Spilsbury's 'The Art of Etching and Aqua Tinting' published

1796

Lithography experiments by Senefelder

1796

Senefelder starts experimenting printing from stone

1797

Bewick: History of British Birds Vol.I

1798

The best kind of limestone is Bavarian. Light coloured and perfectly smooth, it is porous and absorbs both water and greasy substances equally well. The stone used is about six inches thick and is fairly big, up to 90x65 cm (35x25 inches), and can weigh up to 150 or 175 pounds. The stone is ground smooth. The drawing is made on it with a greasy lithographic pencil or crayon, and then fixed by rinsing the stone with a very weak solution of nitric acid and gum arabic. The stone is wiped with water before each impression is taken and, for each print, it is inked by means of a leather-covered roller. During this operation, the porous limestone retains the grease of the crayon where the drawing has been made, and the parts which are not drawn upon become impregnated with water. The ink, which is greasy, is repelled by the water-wet areas and adheres only to the areas marked by the crayon. See also: Senefelder.

1798

Lithography invented by Senefelder

1799

The'Rosetta' stone is discovered. It contains the same text in Egyptian hieroglyphic, Egyptian demotic, and Greek writing. It was discovered in 1799 near the mouth of the Nile and served to break the code for deciphering ancient Egyptian works.

1799

Lambinet, Pierre, published his Recherches Historiques sur l'Origine de l'Imprimerie at Brussels

1800

Lenox, James, d.1880, American bookcollector, first to import 42-lines Gutenberg into the USA

1800

Congress. Library of Congress Washington founded

1804

Baxter, George (d. 1867). Patented letterpress process for color printing

1804

John Gould (1804-1881), British ornithologist and artist.

1804

Baxter, George (d. 1867). Patented letterpress process for color printing

1804

Bewick: History of British Birds Vol II

1808

Laurenziana. The Laurenziana and Marciana libraries of the Medici's combined in Flrence now forming the Biblioteca Mediceco-Laurenziana

1809

Xavier Marmier (1809-1892), a member of the Académie Française, bequeathed his books to the public library in Pontarlier. In memory of the happy moments passed among the book stall keepers on the quays of the Left Bank he left them the sum of 1,000 francs..

1809

Thomas Frognell Dibdin (1776-1847) published 1809: THE BIBLIOMANIA; or, Book-Madness; containing some account of the History, Symptoms, and Cure of this Fatal Disease.

1810

Brunet's Manuel du Libraire et de l'amateur de livres published.

1811

Chiswick Press founded.

1812

Cylinder Press, First built in Britain by Friedrich Konig

1814

Graesse, Johann, d.1885, wrote Tresor de Livres rares et precieux


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